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IGS offers access to web-based mission planning software (automated waypoint generator) to provide operators of piloted (manned) and unmanned (UAV) aircraft with the flight trajectories sufficient to collect digital imagery at orientations/locations sufficient to a) mitigate the SfM systematic doming (elevation) error and b) minimize the number of ground control points (GCP) required to produce a high quality [accurate] 3D point cloud model.  It should be noted that IGS's waypoint generator (under construction) can be used to create trajectories/paths for water-craft and ground-mobile vehicles (manned or unmanned) as well.  Refer to the "What we do/FODAR/SfM" section of this website.  The motivation for using curved flight lines and the mathematical basis for constructing curved flight lines are detailed in the Amazon eBook entitled "Gently Curved, Convergent, Non-traditional Drone Flight Paths" - or go directly to

Non-traditional (non-linear / non-parallel) Gently Curved Mission Plans for Aerial Data Collection

Very large areas - McCall Glacier, Alaska

Curved flight lines can be used to collect remote sensing data over very large areas.  In the image on the immediate right, the original (colored) curved flight lines are shown before being adapted to the aircraft selected (piloted or UAV) to fly and collect the required aerial photography.

Intermediate sized areas - Bessemer Airport, AL

Curved flight lines can be effectively used with odd-shaped or elongated areas.  The image to the immediate right shows the original (colored) curved flight lines just before consideration is given to the type of aircraft chosen to fly the mission and collect the required aerial photography (digital images).

Long narrow corridors - Electric Power Transmission Corridor (Alabama)

Curved flight lines can be effectively used with long narrow corridors such as roadways, waterways (rivers), railroads, electric power corridors, etc.  Long narrow corridors are most likely to experience the well know systematic SfM doming (elevation) error.  The curved flight lines are used to mitigate the SfM doming error.

Large areas - Potential or existing surface mine sites

Curved flight lines can be adapted (as shown) to the size and shape of the target areas.  Also, the original curved flight lines can be adapted to the type of aircraft (fixed-wing or rotor-wing) piloted or unmanned drones chosen to collect the required aerial photographs.